Stafford () is the county town of Staffordshire, in the West Midlands of England. It lies approximately north of Wolverhampton, south of Stoke-on-Trent and north-west of Birmingham. The population in 2001 was 63,681 and that of the wider borough of Stafford 122,000, the fourth largest in the county after Stoke-on-Trent, Tamworth and Newcastle-under-Lyme.
==History== Stafford means 'ford' by a 'staithe' (landing place). The original settlement was on dry sand and gravel peninsula that provided a strategic crossing point in the marshy valley of the River Sow, a tributary of the River Trent. There is still a large area of marshland northwest of the town, which has always been subject to flooding, such as in 1947, 2000 and 2007.
It is thought Stafford was founded in about 700 AD Until recently it was thought that the remains of a wooden preaching cross from this time had been found under the remains of St Bertelin's chapel, next to the later collegiate Church of St Mary in the centre of the town. Recent re-examination of the evidence shows this was a misinterpretation – it was a tree-trunk coffin placed centrally in the first, timber, chapel at around the time Æthelflæd founded the burh, in 913 AD. The tree-trunk coffin may have been placed there as an object of commemoration or veneration of St Bertelin.
Already a centre for the delivery of grain tribute during the Early Middle Ages, Stafford was commandeered in July 913 AD by Æthelflæd, Lady of Mercia and daughter of King Alfred the Great, after the death of her father and of her husband, Æthelred, then ealdorman of Mercia in 911, in order to construct a burh there. This new burh was fortified and provided with an industrial area for the centralised production of Roman-style pottery ("Stafford Ware") which was supplied to the chain of West Midlands burhs.
She and her younger brother King Edward the Elder of Wessex, both children of King Alfred the Great and Ealhswith, wife of Æthelred, ealdorman of the Angles of Mercia, were attempting to complete their father King Alfred the Great's programme of unifying England into a single kingdom. Æthelflæd was a formidable military leader and tactician, and she sought to protect and extend the northern and western frontiers of her overlordship of Mercia against the Danish Vikings, by fortifying burhs, including Tamworth and Stafford in 913, and Runcorn on the River Mersey in 915 among others, while King Edward the Elder concentrated on the east, wresting East Anglia and Essex from the Danes. Anglo-Saxon women could play powerful roles in society; Æthelflæd's death effectively ended the relative independence of Mercia. Edward the Elder of Wessex took over her fortress at Tamworth and accepted the submission of all who were living in Mercia, both Danish and English. In late 918 Aelfwynn, Æthelflæd's daughter, was deprived of her authority over Mercia and taken to Wessex. The project for the unification of England took another step forward.
Stafford was one of Æthelflæd's military campaign bases and extensive archaeological investigations, and recent re-examination and interpretation of that evidence now shows her new burh was producing, in addition to the Stafford Ware pottery, food for her army (butchery, grain processing, baking), coinage and weaponry, but apparently no other crafts and there were few imports.
The Lady of Mercia, Æthelflæd, ruled Mercia for five years after the death of her father and husband, dying in Tamworth in 918.
At around this time the county of Staffordshire was formed. Stafford lay within the Pirehill hundred.
In 1069, a rebellion by Eadric the Wild against the Norman conquest culminated in the Battle of Stafford. Two years later another rebellion, this time led by Edwin, Earl of Mercia, culminated in Edwin's assassination. This meant his lands were distributed amongst the followers of William the Conqueror. Robert de Tonei was granted the manor of Bradley and one third of the king's rents in Stafford. The Norman conquest in Stafford was therefore particularly brutal, and resulted not only in the imposition of a castle, but in the destruction and suppression of every other activity except the intermittent minting of coins for about a hundred years.
Stafford Castle was built by the Normans on the nearby hilltop to the west in about 1090. It was first made of wood, and later rebuilt of stone. It has been rebuilt twice since, and the ruins of the 19th century gothic revival castle on the earthworks incorporate much of the original stonework.
Redevelopment began in the late 12th century, and while the church, the main north-to-south street (Greengate) and routes through the late Saxon industrial quarter to the east remained, in other ways the town plan changed. A motte was constructed on the western side of the peninsula, overlooking a ford, and facing the site of the main castle of Stafford, on the hill at Castle Church, west of the town. Tenements were laid out over the whole peninsula and trade and crafts flourished until the early 14th century, when there was another upset probably associated with the plague of Black Death, which was followed in the mid 16th century by another revival.
King Richard II was paraded through the town's streets as a prisoner in 1399, by troops loyal to Henry Bolingbroke (the future Henry IV).
When James I visited Stafford, he was said to be so impressed by the town's Shire Hall and other buildings that he called it 'Little London'.
Charles I visited Stafford shortly after the out-break of the English Civil War. He stayed for three days at the Ancient High House. The town was later captured by the Parliamentarians, while a small-scale battle was fought at nearby Hopton. Stafford later fell to the Parliamentarians, as did Stafford Castle, following a six-week siege. The town's most famous son is Izaak Walton, author of The Compleat Angler, who was a staunch Royalist.
In 1658 Stafford elected John Bradshaw, the man who judged the trial of King Charles I, to represent the town in Parliament. During the reign of Charles II, William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford became implicated in the Popish Plot, in which Titus Oates whipped up anti-Catholic feelings with his claims that there was a plot to have the king killed. Lord Stafford was among those accused; he was unfortunate to be the first to be tried, and was beheaded in 1680. The charge was false and over five years later, on 4 June 1685, the bill of attainder against him was reversed.
The town was represented in Parliament by the famous playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan in the 18th century. During the same era, the town's mechanised shoe industry was founded, the most well-known factory owner being William Horton.
On 31 March 2006 the Queen visited the town to join in the 800th anniversary civic celebrations.
In 2013 Stafford celebrated its 1,100th anniversary year with a number of history-based exhibitions, while local historian Nick Thomas and writer Roger Butters were set to produce the two-volume 'A Compleat History of Stafford' (sic).
The top-tier Staffordshire County Council, and Stafford Borough Council, are both based in the town. The office of Mayor of Stafford Borough has existed since the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. The mayor of Stafford for 2016–17 is Geoffrey Collier.
Stafford has its own parliamentary constituency, represented since 2010 by Jeremy Lefroy, a Conservative.
The Elizabethan Ancient High House in the town centre is the largest timber-framed town house in England. It is now a museum, with changing exhibitions.
Stafford Castle was built by the Normans on the nearby hilltop to the west in about 1090, replacing the post-Conquest fort in the town. It was first made of wood, and later rebuilt of stone. It has been rebuilt twice since, and the ruins of the 19th century gothic revival castle crowning the earthworks incorporate much of the original stonework. The main part of the church is richly decorated. Carvings in the church's archways and pillars may have been made by a group of stonemasons from the Middle East who came to England during the Crusades. A great deal of the stonework was covered up during the 17th and 18th centuries, and the church took on a neo-classical style. In the early 19th century restoration, work was carried out on the church and the Norman decoration was rediscovered. The church hosts "Timewalk", a computer generated display which relates the journey of history and mystery within the walls of the church.
St Mary's, the collegiate church formerly linked to St Bertelin's chapel, was completely rebuilt in the early 13th century in a cruciform layout with an aisled nave and chancel typical of the period. It has an impressive octagonal tower, once topped by a tall steeple, which can be picked out in Gough's plan shown above. The church was effectively two churches in one, divided by a screen, with the parish using the nave and the collegiate canons using the chancel. St Mary's was restored in 1842 by Giles Gilbert Scott.
The Shire Hall Gallery was built in 1798 as a court house and office of the Mayor and Clerk of Stafford. It houses the Art Gallery, which shows changing exhibitions. It also contains a café and previously the town's library until its recent move to Staffordshire Place. The Shire Hall used to be the town's court house, and is a Grade II listed building. It still retains two courtrooms. One of them is open to the general public and has a permanent exhibition showing the history of the building and details of some high-profile cases that were heard there. An old 'holding cell' is also open to public viewing. In recent times, the building was used as a library prior to the construction of a new facility contained within the new council buildings.
The Shugborough Hall country estate is outside town. It previously belonged to the Earls of Lichfield, and is now owned by the National Trust and maintained by the leaseholder, Staffordshire County Council. The 19th century Sandon Hall is northeast of Stafford. It is set in of parkland, and is the seat of the Earl of Harrowby. Weston Hall stands east of Stafford, in the Trent valley, with a large park and it was once part of the Chartley estate. It is believed that the main part of the hall was built around 1550 as a small dower house, however the architectural evidence suggests that it is Jacobean. Weston Hall was extended in 1660 into a three-gable structure with high-pitched roofs.
==Culture== Stafford Gatehouse Theatre is the town's main entertainment and cultural venue. The Met Studio within the Gatehouse is a dedicated venue for stand-up comedy and alternative live music. There is an art gallery in the Shire Hall. Staffordshire County Showground, just outside the town, is the venue for many national and local events. There is an annual Shakespeare Festival at Stafford Castle that has attracted many notable people, including Frank Sidebottom and Ann Widdecombe.
Victoria Park, opened in 1908, is a 13 acre (53,000 m2) Edwardian riverside park with a play park, bowling green, bird cages and greenhouses; Victoria Park has recently undergone a major redevelopment in places, incorporating a new children's play area, new sand and water jet area which has replaced the previous open-air paddling pool and also a brand new bmx/skateboard area. Stafford is also home to a 9 hole golf course near the town centre.
The three screen Apollo Cinema, showing mainstream releases, is in the centre of town. Stafford Film Theatre is based at the Gatehouse Theatre, and shows independent and alternative films. There is also a tenpin bowling alley at Greyfriars Place. The new Stafford Leisure Centre opened in 2008 on Lammascote Road.
Nightlife in the town consists of smaller bar and club venues such as Casa, the Grapes, the Picture House, and the nightclub Couture / Noir et Blanc, most of which are in walking distance of each other. There is a big student patronage, with coaches bringing students from Stoke-on-Trent, Cannock, and Wolverhampton.
== Media == Stafford FM is Stafford's first and only FM radio station, and won their FM licence in 2015.
=== Newspapers === Stafford is covered by the Express and Star and Staffordshire Newsletter, both of which have offices in the town.
=== Television === Stafford is covered by Midlands Today and ITV Central, both broadcasting from Birmingham. These cover the wider West Midlands area. Stafford is mainly served by the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, just north of Birmingham, however, some residents in Stafford use The Wrekin transmitting station, near Telford, to obtain a watchable picture.
=== Radio === In terms of BBC Local Radio, Stafford is covered by BBC Radio Stoke, which broadcasts to the town on 104.1 FM, with a transmitter based on top of the County Education building. In terms of commercial radio, Stafford is covered by Signal Radio, broadcasting on 96.9 FM from a transmitter at Pye Green BT Tower, near Hednesford. Both of these stations are based in Stoke-on-Trent, and cover Staffordshire and Cheshire.
Stafford can also get marginal signals from the West Midlands regionals, like Heart and Planet Rock, and is at the very north of Free Radio's Black Country and Shropshire coverage area.
=== Community Radio ===
There are two community radio stations in Stafford:
Stafford FM first aired on 28 October 2001 from studios situated in Gaol Mews, Stafford, and has been broadcasting continually online since August 2013. The station also broadcast briefly during 2013 using the name XL FM.
Ofcom awarded Stafford FM a Community Radio License in 2014 following several short term (RSL) broadcasts. The station launched on 107.3fm in April 2015 from studios studios in the town centre.
Windmill Broadcasting is an online community radio station broadcasting from the Broad Eye Windmill. It has been broadcasting since 12 June 2016, and is the only radio station in the UK to be based in a windmill. As well as being based in the Mill, Windmill Broadcasting works with the Friends of the Broad Eye Windmill to assist with fundraising and renovation, and to boost awareness of the Broad Eye Windmill.
In October 2014, it was announced by Ofcom that forces station the British Forces Broadcasting Service will broadcast to the Beacon Barracks on FM, in addition to its sister station, BFBS Gurkha Radio, which already broadcasts locally on 1278 kHz medium wave.
As with the rest of the British Isles Stafford experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest Met Office weather station is at Penkridge, about 5 miles to the south.
Stafford has a long history of shoe making. It is recorded as far back as 1476, when it was a cottage industry, but the manufacturing process was introduced in the 1700s. The large Lotus Shoe factory on Sandon Road was demolished in 2001 to be replaced by housing.
In 1875, A locomotive firm called W. G. Bagnall was set up. Bagnall's manufacted steam locomotives for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway and the Great Western Railway. From 1875 to 1962 the Castle Engine Works, in Castle Town, produced 1,660 locomotives including steam, diesel and electric locomotives. In 1962 Bagnall's was taken over by English Electric who also bought Stafford based engine manufacturer W.H. Dorman who by that time was merged with Bagnall's.
Since 1903, a major activity in the town has been heavy electrical engineering, particularly producing power station transformers. The works have been successively owned by Siemens, English Electric, GEC and GEC Alsthom. Alstom T&D was sold in 2004 to Areva. At the end of 2009, Areva Ltd was split between former owner Alstom and Schneider Electric. Each transformer weighs several hundred tons and so a road train is used for transport. In the 1968 Hixon rail crash, one such road train was struck by an express train when it was crossing the railway at a level crossing.
Perkins Engines has a factory making diesel engines in Littleworth. Adhesives manufacturer Bostik has a large factory in the town. Stafford is also a major dormitory town for workers commuting to Stoke-on-Trent and Birmingham.
The public sector provides a lot of local employment, with Staffordshire County Council, Stafford Borough Council and Staffordshire Police all headquartered in the town. Stafford Prison, County Hospital and MoD Stafford are other sources of local public sector employment.
The town was home to the computer science and IT campus of Staffordshire University along with Beaconside campus which used to house the Faculty of Computing Engineering and Technology and part Business School this has all closed down and all have been transferred to Stoke-on-Trent. The only block of Stafford University left in use is the Blackheath Lane campus houses the School of Health, which teaches nursing. The main campus in Stoke-on-Trent is located about north.
The town centre Guildhall Shopping Centre is the town's main shopping venue, housing more than 40 retail outlets such as Boots, Topman Topshop and River Island. There are 3 major superstores that surround the main town centre, an Asda superstore, a Tesco Extra and a Sainsbury's store. They are open 24 hours with the exception of Sainsbury's.
== Transport ==
Stafford railway station was once a major hub on the railway network, but the suspension of passenger services on the Stafford to Uttoxeter line in 1939 and Beeching's closure of the Stafford to Shrewsbury Line in 1964 completely halted east-west traffic through Stafford. The years up to 2008 saw cross-country trains stopping at Stafford less frequently. Since the CrossCountry trains franchisee change, more CrossCountry trains are now stopping at Stafford railway station. Stafford railway station is still a stop for a number of Virgin Trains services on the West Coast Main Line enabling easy commuting to London (Euston) and Liverpool. CrossCountry trains operate a regular service to Stoke-on-trent and Manchester Piccadilly normally every 30 Mins during the weekdays; Since December 2008 London Midland have operated a service stopping at Stafford which also serves Crewe and London and also a Birmingham - Liverpool Lime Street service which departs Stafford Station normally every 30 mins during the weekdays. At least one train each way between Birmingham New Street and Crewe is operated by Arriva Trains Wales.
Junctions 13 (Stafford South & Central) and 14 (Stafford North) of the M6 motorway provide access to the town, therefore the major cities of Birmingham and Manchester and beyond are easily reached. The A34 road runs through the centre of the town, linking it to Stone and Stoke-on-Trent to the north and Cannock and the West Midlands conurbation to the south. The A518 road connects Stafford with Telford to the south west and Uttoxeter to the north east, and therefore is the main route to the major theme park at Alton Towers. The A449 runs south from the town centre and connects with the nearby town of Penkridge and Wolverhampton. Finally, the A513 runs east from Stafford to the local towns of Rugeley and Lichfield.
The majority of bus services in Stafford and area are provided by Arriva Midlands, and the company also operates services to Lichfield, Cannock and Wolverhampton. From late April 2015 National Express West Midlands introduced a new service between Wolverhampton and Stafford. Services to Stone and Stoke-on-Trent are handled by First Potteries and Bakerbus. D&G Bus and a number of smaller operators serve rural locations
Stafford is served by five large taxi companies: Aerobright's, Anthony's AJ's, Kaminski Hire, Westside and SmartCars. There are also a large number of independent operators who work from the ranks at the station, Bridge Street, Broad Street and Salter Street.
The Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal runs close to the Baswich and Wildwood areas, and was previously linked to the River Sow by the River Sow Navigation.
The town's main hospital is County Hospital It provides a wide range of non-specialist medical and surgical services. County Hospital's Accident and Emergency unit is the only such facility in the town. The hospital made the national news in March 2009, with the release of a Healthcare Commission report detailing the facility's appalling shortcomings.
St George's Hospital, part of the South Staffordshire and Shropshire Health Care Trust, is actually a combination of two historical hospitals—the Kingsmead Hospital (previously an elderly care facility) and the St George's psychiatric hospital. It provides mental health services, including an intensive care unit, secure units, an eating disorder unit, an EMI unit for the elderly and mentally frail, drug and alcohol addiction services and open wards. There is a small outpatient facility, and this is the location of the town's AA meeting. Rowley Hall Hospital in Rowley Park is a private hospital run by Ramsay Healthcare. It also offers some NHS treatments.
The town is supplied with primary healthcare by the South Staffordshire Primary Care Trust.
Policing in Stafford is provided by Staffordshire Police, which is headquartered on Weston Road. The force is currently trying to sell-off its old headquarters on Cannock Road. There is also a police station in the town centre on Eastgate Street.
Stafford Crown Court and Stafford County Court share a building in the town centre. There is a magistrates' court in nearby South Walls. The Shire Hall, Stafford used to be a courthouse, it is now an art gallery. It was completed in 1798.
Stafford Prison is a Category C men's prison, operated by HM Prison Service. The prison holds a number of vulnerable prisoners, mainly sex offenders. It was built on its current site in 1794, and has been in almost continuous use, save a period between 1916 and 1940.
Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Staffordshire Fire and Rescue Service, which has stations in Beaconside and Rising Brook.
Staffordshire County Council's headquarters are in the centre of Stafford. Its administrative base is at County Buildings in Martin Street, with the majority of its staff in the town in the Staffordshire Place development, which opened in 2011. Numerous council bases across the town are closing as staff centralise at Staffordshire Place. Stafford Borough Council is headquartered at the Civic Centre on Riverside.
The town's main library was formerly in the Shire Hall, it has been relocated to part of the ground floor at 1 Staffordshire Place with smaller libraries in Rising Brook, Baswich and Holmcroft. The William Salt Library in the town centre is a large collection of printed books, pamphlets, manuscripts, drawings, watercolours and transcripts built up by William Salt.
MoD Stafford is located on Beaconside. Originally RAF Stafford, the base was a non-flying Royal Air Force station. It was redesignated MoD Stafford in March 2006. The event was marked by a fly past and a flag lowering ceremony. For many years the site provided employment for civilians and military personnel. However, RAF Stafford was handed over by the Royal Air Force in accordance with the current policy of defence strategy and streamlining. A small element of the Tactical Supply Wing (TSW) still operates from the base. It is now home to a Gurkha signals regiment and a RAF Regiment contingent alongside Tactical Supply Wing.
===Primary schools=== *Anson CE (A) Primary School *Barnfields Primary School *Berkswich CE Primary School *Blessed Mother Teresa RC Primary School (Formerly Bower Norris) *Brooklands Preparatory School (Independent) *Burton Manor Primary School *Castlechurch Primary School *Cooper Perry Primary School *Flash Ley Community Primary School *John Wheeldon Primary School *Leasowes Primary School (formed by the merger of Leasowes Infant School and Leasowes Junior School in 2006) *Oakridge Primary School (plus nursery) *Parkside Primary School *Silkmore Primary School *Stafford Preparatory School *St Anne's RC Primary School *St Austin's RC Primary School *St. Bede's Preparatory School (Independent) *St John's CE Primary School *St Leonard's Primary School *St Patrick's Catholic Primary School *St Paul's Primary School *Doxey Primary School *Tillington Manor Primary School - formerly Holmcroft Primary School *The Grove Primary School
===Secondary schools=== *Blessed William Howard Catholic School *King Edward VI High School (Highfields) *Stafford Grammar School. Selective, independent school, Founded 1982. *Stafford Manor High School (formerly Rising Brook High School and Stafford Sports College) *Sir Graham Balfour School *Walton High School *Weston Road Academy
===Tertiary education=== The Chetwynd Centre also provides higher education in the town. It normally teaches specialised A-levels, some vocational qualifications and subjects taught by teachers with no school base. The centre has joined up with all the town's secondary schools, except the grammar school, to provide better resources for students.
Stafford College is a large college of further education. Stafford College also provides some higher education courses on behalf of Staffordshire University and focuses heavily on computing and engineering.
South Staffordshire College has a base in the village of Rodbaston, on the edge of Stafford. It is an agricultural college and provides most of its training in this sector.
Staffordshire University has a large campus in the east of the town and focuses heavily on computing, engineering and media technologies (film, music and computer games). It also runs teacher training courses. The university has 2 halls of residence opposite the campus, the smaller Yarlet with 51 rooms and the larger Stafford Court with 554 Rooms. Stafford Court is divided into 13 'houses' named after local villages.
==Sport== Stafford is home to three association football clubs; Stafford Rangers F.C., Brocton F.C. and Stafford Town F.C., none of which play at a fully professional level.
The town also has two rugby union clubs though again they do not play at a high level.
There is also a local hockey team with eight adult teams.
Stafford Post Office Rifle and Pistol Club is a Home Office Approved Rifle Club founded in 1956 and has its own 25yd indoor range attached to the Stafford Post Office Social Club. In addition to short range indoor shooting, the club uses a number of outdoor ranges including Kingsbury, Sennybridge and Thorpe for larger calibre long range shooting.
Stafford Cricket and Hockey Club was founded in 1864, which almost certainly makes it the oldest sports club in Stafford. The club appears to have originally played at the Lammascotes before being offered a field at the Hough (Lichfield Road/GEC site) in 1899 which belonged to the grammar school (The new ground there was opened by the mayor, a Mr Mynors in May of that year). In 1984 the club negotiated a move to Riverway in 1984 as the Hough came under the ownership of GEC. They currently own at Riverway and host numerous sports all year round - they have 2 cricket pitches in the summer and in the winter host football, mini football, rugby and hockey.
In 1999 they were awarded a £200K lottery grant towards a new pavilion completed in 2000. The pavilion has 6 changing rooms and a lounge/function room for members and guests.
The cricket section always welcome new players of all abilities There are four senior sides that play on a Saturday. The 1st & 2nd XIs play in the North Staffordshire and South Cheshire League. The 3rd and 4th XI's play in the Stone & District Cricket League. They also have a senior team on a Sunday that plays in the Lichfield Sunday League. They have five junior sides in the following age groups; Under 9, Under 11, Under 13, Under 15 & Under 17s. They are an ECB Clubmark Accredited Club.
==Language== Although a significant number of people living and working within Stafford speak with distinctly Black Country or Stoke-on-Trent accents, there exists a very distinctive Staffordian accent, spoken by most residents, that sounds like a weaker cousin of the East Midlands family of accents. The famous stand-up comedian, author, broadcaster and Stafford native Dave Gorman has a typically Staffordian accent.
The Stafford accent may be distinguished from that of the more southern parts of Staffordshire heading towards the West Midlands, where the accent is more Black Country-influenced. The accent of Stafford is more influenced by Stoke-on-Trent, to varying extents, but less broad and perhaps more "watered-down." Those who live in Stafford tend to believe they have a more "neutral" accent, or perhaps no accent at all, but the influence of Stoke-on-Trent and nearby Stone sets it apart and distinguishes itself from more southern Staffordshire.
== The Stafford knot ==
The Stafford knot, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Staffordshire knot, is a distinctive three-looped knot that is the traditional symbol of the English county of Staffordshire and of its county town, Stafford. It is used by many local organizations on buildings, logos, coats of arms, etc., and is the name of a pub.
Notable people from Stafford include the 17th century author of The Compleat Angler, Izaak Walton, whose cottage at nearby Shallowford is now an angling museum, and the 18th century playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan was once the local MP. Also, the 1853 Lord Mayor of London, Thomas Sidney, was born in the town.
In the early 1900s, the village of Great Haywood near Stafford was home to the wife of famous The Lord of the Rings author J. R. R. Tolkien. He stayed with his wife, Edith, in her cottage in the village during the winter of 1916, and the surrounding areas were said to be an inspiration for some of his early works. The science fantasy author Storm Constantine is a long-time resident.
British poet, playwright and freelance writer Carol Ann Duffy, although born in Glasgow, Scotland, grew up in Stafford and attended Stafford Girls' High School. She was awarded an OBE in 1995, and a CBE in 2002. Many of her poems describe experiences and places in Stafford. She has been the Poet laureate since 2009 and now lives in Manchester.
=== early times to 1800 ===
* Richard Stanford (MP) (1382-1402) politician, MP for Stafford in May 1382, 1386, September 1388, 1391, 1399 and 1402. * Sir William Stafford (c.1500 in Chebsey – 1556) landowner and the second husband of Mary Boleyn, who was the sister of Anne Boleyn and one-time mistress of King Henry VIII * Matthew Cradock (c.1575 - 1636) English wool merchant, elected MP for Stafford in 1621, re-elected in 1624, 1625 and again in 1628 and sat until 1629 when King Charles dispensed with parliament for eleven years * Thomas Maxfield (real name Macclesfield) (c.1590 – 1616) English Roman Catholic priest and a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1929; he was born in Stafford gaol * Ralph Sneyd (died 1650) English landowner and politician. MP for Stafford in the Short Parliament and the Long Parliament and sat until he was disabled in 1642 * John Swinfen (1613 – 1694 in Weeford) English politician, elected MP for Stafford in 1660 in the Convention Parliament * Sir Robert Pigot, 2nd Baronet (1720 – 1796 in Stafford) British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War * Lieutenant General Sir William Congreve, 1st Baronet (1742 – 1814) British military officer who improved artillery strength through gunpowder experiments * James Oatley, Snr. (c. 1769 in Stafford –1839) colonial Australian watch and clock maker and one-time convict. Oatley, aged 44, was sentenced to penal transportation for life for stealing shirts and bedding. He had earlier conviction for stealing a ton of cheese. * James Trubshaw (1777 in Colwich – 1853) English builder, architect and civil engineer
=== 1800 to 1900 ===
* George Smith (1805–1874), popularly known as Throttler Smith, was an English hangman from 1840 until 1872 at Stafford gaol * Charles Pye VC (1820 in Stafford – 1876) sergeant-major, recipient of the Victoria Cross * William Palmer (1824 in Rugeley – 1856 in Stafford Prison) an English doctor found guilty in 1855 of the notorious murder by poisoning of his friend John Cook, and was executed by George Smith in public by hanging * Benjamin Broomhall (1829 in Bradley – 1911) author and advocate of foreign missions, administrator of China Inland Mission * Francis William Webb (1836 in Tixall – 1906) British engineer responsible for the design and manufacture of locomotives for the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) * Edward Ilsley (1838 – 1926) English prelate in the Roman Catholic Church, first Archbishop of Birmingham (1888–1921) * Francis William Mary Redwood SM (1839 at Tixall – 1935), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Wellington, in New Zealand. * James Whitaker Wright (1846 – 1904) company promoter and swindler, who committed suicide at the Royal Courts of Justice in London immediately following his conviction for fraud. * The Reverend Ernest Henry Shears (1849 – 1917 in Stafford) was an Anglican clergyman in South Africa * William Gordon Bagnall (1852 – 1907) British mechanical engineer, founded the locomotive manufacturing company of W.G. Bagnall in 1875 which operated until taken over in 1962 by English Electric * Captain Egerton Bagot Byrd Levett-Scrivener (1857 in Milford Hall - 1954) Royal Navy Flag Lieutenant and aide to Vice Admiral George Willes in the Far East * William Kearsley (1863 in Stafford – 1921) Australian politician and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1910 until 1921 * William Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech KG GCMG PC (1885 – 1964) British Conservative politician and banker, MP for Stafford from 1918 until he entered the House of Lords on succeeding to his father's peerage in 1938. * Frank Houghton (1894–1972) Anglican missionary bishop and author
=== 1900 to modern times ===
* George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft CH PC (1909 – 1994) British Conservative Party politician, MP for Stafford from 1938 to 1945 and Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1957 and 1958 * Stephen Swingler (1915 – 1969) Labour Party politician, MP for Stafford from 1945 to 1950, and for Newcastle-under-Lyme from 1951 to 1969. * Michael John Wise CBE, MC (1918 – 2015) academic, professor of geography at the University of London * Major Sir Hugh Charles Patrick Joseph Fraser MBE PC (1918 – 1984) British Conservative politician, first husband of Lady Antonia Fraser and MP for Stafford from 1945 until 1984. * Thomas Worrall Kent (1922 – 2011) Canadian economist, journalist, editor, public servant, and industrialist; born in Stafford * Sir William Nigel Paul Cash (born 1940), known as Bill Cash, British Conservative politician and MP for Stafford from 1984 to 1997 * David Kidney (born 1955) British Labour Party politician, MP for Stafford from 1997 to 2010. * Patrick McLoughlin PC MP (born 1957) Conservative Party politician; the son and grandson of coal miners * Jeremy John Elton Lefroy (born 1959) British Conservative Party politician, MP for the Stafford constituency since the 2010 * Mike Dilger (born 1966) ecologist, ornithologist and TV presenter * Sarah Buck OBE (born 1953) English structural and civil engineer and business woman with a successful career in engineering and construction, attended Stafford Girls High School.
=== The Arts===
* Richard Barnfield (1574 in Norbury – 1620) poet, obscure and close relationship with William Shakespeare interests scholars. * John Prescott Knight RA (1803 in Stafford – 1881) English portrait painter. Secretary of the Royal Academy from 1848 until 1873 * Frederick Percy Edgar OBE (1884 in Stafford – 1972) English broadcaster. * Rolf Harris (born 1930) Australian entertainer and an inmate in Stafford gaol * Rodney Milnes (Rodney Milnes Blumer OBE) (1936 – 2015) music critic, musicologist, writer, translator and broadcaster, with a particular interest in opera * Dave Follows (1941 – 2003) British cartoonist best known for his comic strip Creature Feature and lived in Stafford all his life. * Patrick Fyffe (1942–2002) creator of Dame Hilda Bracket * Pete Haycock (1951 in Stafford – 2013) English musician, film score composer and founding member of the Climax Blues Band * Storm Constantine (born 1956) British science fiction and fantasy author, primarily known for her Wraeththu series. * Mark Preston Curry (born in Stafford 1961) English actor and television and radio presenter * Neil Morrissey (born in Stafford 1962) actor, star of Men Behaving Badly * Sir Jonathan Ive, KBE (born 1967), iPhone designer, was educated at Stafford Walton High School * Climax Blues Band formed in 1968 a popular Stafford blues band who later achieved international record success. * Dominic Mafham (born 1968), actor, born in Stafford * Medicine Head 1970s hit duo hailed from nearby Tixall * Dave Gorman (born 1971) English comedian, author, and television presenter. * Paul Pickard a former prize winning photojournalist, now an advertising photographer, was born in the town and attended King Edward VI Grammar School. * Allister Upton the world famous Oliver Hardy impersonator * Steve McTigue, actor * Freya Copeland, who played Police Officer Angela 'Angie' Reynolds in the soap Emmerdale * Duncan Botwood (born 1972 in Stafford) British video game designer and voice actor. * Fran Healy (born in Stafford 1973) singer in Travis moved to Scotland when very young * Hannah Maybank (born in Stafford 1974) British artist best known for the ripped and distressed surfaces of her three-dimensional paintings in acrylic *Kieron Gillen, (born 1975) British computer games and music journalist and comic book author. He went to Blessed William Howard Catholic High School * Tom Vaughan (actor) (born in Stafford 1985) English television actor, played the part of Spike in British Channel 4 series Hollyoaks from March 2007 until August 2007. * Bizarre Inc rave act formed in 1989 * Altern-8 rave act formed in Stafford in 1990 * Chicken Lips dance music band, production team formed in 1999, successor to Bizarre Inc
* Charles Baker (footballer) (1867 – 1924) played in the Football League for Stoke F.C. and Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. * Walter Hanbury Twigg (1883 in Weeping Cross – 1963) English field hockey player and cricketer. * Harry Hutsby (1886 in Stafford – 1971) joined Stoke F.C. in 1908 from local side Stafford Wednesday * William "Bill" Aston (1900 in Hopton – 1974) British racing driver who participated in three World Championship Grands Prix * Joe Hulme (1904 – 1991) English footballer and cricketer. Played football 333 times for Arsenal F.C. and 225 times for Middlesex as an aggressive middle-order batsman and medium-fast bowler. * Walter Robins (1906 – 1968) cricketer and footballer. He was one of Wisden's Cricketers of the Year in 1930. * Brian Little (born 1953) former Aston Villa player and manager lives in the town * Nigel Callaghan (born 1962) professional footballer Aston Villa, Derby County and Watford. Now lives and DJs in the town. * Phil Robinson (footballer, born 1967) International Youth Scouting and Recruitment Manager at Manchester City. He is an English former footballer who played for Aston Villa, Wolverhampton Wanderers, Notts County, Birmingham City, Huddersfield Town, Northampton Town, Chesterfield, Stoke City, Hereford United and Stafford Rangers. * Andy Kirkpatrick (climber) (born 1971) British mountaineer, author, motivational speaker and monologist * Chris Birchall (born 1984), footballer, played alongside David Beckham at LA Galaxy and now plays for Port Vale * Christopher Paget (born 1987) Right-handed batsman and a right-arm offbreak bowler who has played for Derbyshire since 2004. * Joe Leach (born 1990) English cricketer. Leach is a right-handed batsman who bowls right-arm fast-medium for Worcestershire, becoming a first-team regular in 2015. In 2016, he was appointed county captain. * Nicholas "Nick" Jon Yelloly (born 1990 in Stafford) British auto racing driver. * Emma Wilkins (born 1991) British sprint freestyle swimmer, born in Stafford * Morgan Gibbs-White (born 2000 in Stafford) English footballer, midfielder for Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C., went to Sir Graham Balfour
=== The eponymous nobility ===
(see also Baron Stafford) for details of a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of England
* Robert de Stafford (c. 1039 – c. 1100) Norman nobleman, the builder of Stafford Castle * Edmund de Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (1272 - 1308) son of Nicholas de Stafford, who was summoned to parliament by writ on 6 February 1299 by King Edward I. * Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford 2nd Baron Stafford, KG (1301 – 1372) English nobleman and notable soldier during the Hundred Years War * Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, KG (c. 1344 – 1386) English nobleman. * Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford and 6th Baron Audley, KB, KG (1378 – 1403) son of Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford * Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham KG (1402 – 1460) English nobleman * Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford (c. 1425 – c. 1458), eldest son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham * Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, KG (1454 – 1483) English nobleman, one of the primary suspects in the disappearance (and presumed murder) of the Princes in the Tower * Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham KG (1478 – 1521) English nobleman * Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (1501 – 1563) created Baron Stafford in 1547 * Henry Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford (c.1527 – 1565) British peer and MP * Edward Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford (1535 – 1603) second surviving son of Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford the younger brother of Henry Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford. He served in Parliament for Stafford and succeeded his brother in 1566. * Edward Stafford, 4th Baron Stafford (1572 – 1625) son of Edward Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford * Roger Stafford, 6th Baron Stafford (1572 - 1640) son of Richard Stafford, a younger son of Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford. He was forced to give up the Stafford barony in 1637 on the grounds of poverty. * William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, FRS (1614 – 1680) youngest son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel He was a Royalist supporter before being falsely implicated by Titus Oates in the later discredited "Popish Plot", and executed for treason. He was beatified as a Catholic martyr in 1929 * Henry Stafford-Jerningham, 9th Baron Stafford (1802 – 1884), known as Henry Jerningham until 1824, British peer and politician. * Francis Fitzherbert-Stafford, 12th Baron Stafford DSO (1859 – 1932) English peer and British Army officer * Admiral Edward Fitzherbert, 13th Baron Stafford KCB (1864 – 1941) English peer, he was also a Royal Navy officer and Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope Station. * Francis Fitzherbert, 15th Baron Stafford DL (born 1954) English landowner and peer, sat in the House of Lords from 1986 until its reform in 2000. He serves as the Chancellor of Staffordshire University, lives in Swynnerton Hall
== Areas == * Baswich : An estate which is next to Weeping Cross, and many people get confused between these two estates. It is found by heading towards Rugeley and Cannock from Stafford Town Centre, or from Uttoxeter past Weston Road High School and through Baswich lanes. It has a Co-Op as a convenience store, and a hairdresser. It also has a church with a graveyard. * Beaconside * Burton Manor * Castle House Gardens * Castle House Drive * Castlefields : An estate built on the wetlands off Newport Road in the early 1990s, to the displeasure of many protesters. The roads are named after famous athletes of the time (Gunnell Close, Christie Drive etc.) *Castletown : An estate of terraced cottages, built in the 1830s and 1840s for the influx of railway workers into the town. The estate used to have a church, St Thomas's, but this was demolished in the 1970s and replaced by the new church in Doxey. The offices of Staffordshire Newsletter now occupy the site. Castletown is changing rapidly, with the demolition of Stafford Arms and the building of new executive flats heralding a new era on the estate. * The Crossings : A new estate built on the former site of Stychfields, in the grounds of the Alstom factory. It also includes a new retail park. * Coppenhall * Coton Fields * Doxey * Forebridge * Highfields : A large council estate with Wolverhampton Road at one end and Newport Road at the other. The first houses in Highfields were built c. 1955, with substantial additions (Highfields number two estate, as it was then known) in 1963-64. West Way is the longest street in Highfields, carving its way through the entire estate. Many of the streets in the '60s expansion of Highfields were named after poets and playwrights (Shakespeare Road, Masefield Drive, Coleridge Drive, Keats Avenue, Tennyson Road, Binyon Court, etc.) Of the older roads, the longest is Bagot's Oak, so called because of a large oak tree that was in the road. Much of the original estate was built on Preston's Farm land, and one of the bus services was still called 'Highfields Farm until recently. Two residential tower blocks once stood on Milton Grove, named Binyon Court and Brooke Court. Brooke Court was primarily used as student housing, and was subsequently demolished in 1998 to make way for a new housing development. Binyon Court underwent renovations and was renamed the Keep. * Holmcroft * Hyde Lea * King Edward Court * Kingston Hill * Littleworth * Manor Estate * Meadowcroft Park * Moss Pit : Moss Pit is situated in southern Stafford, approximately one mile from Junction 13 of the M6 motorway; areas include the Pippins, the Chestnuts and Scholar's Gate. * Parkside : A housing estate at the extreme north of the town. It has two entrances from the A513 Beaconside Road, forming a U-shape. The estate has access to many green areas, including 3 parks, a 'green' and access to Stafford Common. There is also a primary school (Parkside Primary School) on the estate and access to Sir Graham Balfour School which has been totally rebuilt in 2001. Some of the school grounds were sold off when the old school was demolished to build "the Oaks" housing estate which is adjacent to Parkside. There is also a precinct of shops and the northern terminus of the number 10 bus route (Parkside - Trinity Fields - Stone Road - Stafford town centre). The Parkside estate was built in the 1970s and has a selection of different types of housing: detached, semi-detached, flats and modern terraced housing. * Queensville * Rising Brook * Rickerscote : Rickerscote many years ago used to have a lane running from the now Silkmore estate heading towards the area where the bridge to Argos is. This area is known to many as 'the village', and there is a local shop that serves the people. Rickerscote is home to a large area of grassland know locally as the 'green'. :Other locally well known areas of here are the Conker Tree, Boulton's Farm, Devil's Triangle and the Metal Bridge. The local drinking houses are the Rickerscote Arms(now closed), known to the old school as the Alpine, and before that, The Plough and Trumpet... and further into the estate there is the Post Office Social Club. * Rowley Park * Silkmore : Silkmore is an area situated between Rickerscote and Meadowcroft, with the distant Rising Brook to its side. The local primary school is Silkmore and the area has a selection of shops, ranging from the local butchers to a Chinese. Over the years the area has been under a development programme to upgrade the exteriors of the blocks of flats and the development of new houses on Exeter Street alongside new flats on Sidney Avenue. :An area of Silkmore is renowned for flooding, namely the area where the 'Southend Club' used to stand. This has now been replaced with new homes. Other areas of the estate that no longer exist are 'the Pioneer', 'the Garage' and 'Finney's Farm'. These have all now been replaced by homes or the Co-op. * St. George's : A new housing development close to the St George's Hospital. The main throughway is St. George's Parkway. The housing is a mixture of modern buildings of various types, including a modern interpretation of a Georgian crescent. Work has recently begun on restoring the old St. George's Hospital building (disused since 1995) into luxury flats. * Tillington, Staffordshire * Trinity Fields * The Oaks : The Oaks a new estate that is off the A34 near Sir Graham Balfour School extreme north of Stafford. * Walton on the Hill : Walton on the Hill is located to the south of Stafford bordering Milford. Walton High School is specialist science school. * Weeping Cross : Weeping Cross is an estate on the east side of Stafford. It is easily found by heading up Radford Bank, towards Rugeley and Cannock. It also holds Leasowes Primary School and St Anne's Catholic Primary School. Weeping Cross also has a local pub, the Lynton Tavern (now closed), a clinic with nearby pharmacy, a library and a row of convenient shops. The number one bus runs every 30 minutes around the estate. * Western Downs : An estate on the edge of Stafford that borders on Highfields and the M6 motorway. A large green area with two football pitches and a basketball court known as the 'Bottom Pitches' can be found in Western Downs along with the 'Rainbow Park' on Clarendon Drive, and the 'Dome Park' on Torridge Drive. Until the council built a play area they were the main footballing locations on the estate. The number nine bus route also covers Western Downs. * Wildwood : A large estate with a ring road that joins onto the A34 road. The estate was built around the 1970s and housed a lot of the Stafford police force as the Staffordshire Police HQ was / is located on the opposite side of the A34 road.
== Nearby places == * Alton Towers * Birmingham * Cannock * Cannock Chase * Creswell * Eccleshall * Great Haywood * Heath Hayes and Wimblebury * Hixon * Lichfield * Little Haywood * Newport, Shropshire * Rugeley * Shugborough Hall * Stoke-on-Trent * Stone * Trentham Gardens * Uttoxeter * Wolverhampton
== See also == * Stafford rail crash * HMP Stafford * Etymological list of counties of the United Kingdom * Stafford (UK Parliament constituency)
===Bibliography=== * (11th century and earlier) Staffordshire Newsletter 1994 Guide is good.
* * [http://www.aboutbritain.com/AncientHighHouse.htm Ancient High House] * [http://www.staffordgatehousetheatre.co.uk/ Stafford Gatehouse Theatre] * [http://www.staffordcricketclub.co.uk/ Stafford Cricket Club] * [http://www.sporpc.co.uk/ Stafford Post Office Rifle & Pistol Club] * [http://www.stchadsstafford.co.uk St. Chad's Church] * [http://www.q-net.net.au/~legion/Legionnaires_Disease_Stafford_Hospital.htm Legionnaires' Disease, General Hospital] Legionellosis * [http://www.stafford.info Stafford Now and Then, Antique Picture Postcards] * [http://www.search.staffspasttrack.org.uk/engine/theme/default.asp?theme=487 Pictures & stories about the shoe industry in Stafford] * [http://www.doxeyca.org.uk/dm_history.htm History of Doxey] * [http://www.staffordbc.gov.uk/static/page5749.htm Stafford Borough Council site re a short history of the town] * [http://www.mygodwins.com/34243/index.html?*session*id*key*=*session*id*val* An illustrated history of the town] * [http://www.napoleonicmedals.org/coins/brit01-1.htm William Horton's 1801 penny token] * [http://www.staffspasttrack.org.uk/ Staffordshire Past-Track]
Category:Towns in Staffordshire Category:County towns in England Category:Railway towns in England